Things You Can Do With Google Classroom

Things You Can Do With Google Classroom
Google Classroom (http://classroom.google.com) is available to schools with a Google Apps for Education (GAfE) domain. Classroom is a way to get all of your students in one place and allows you to easily assign work and for students to turn it in. Book: “50 Things You Can Do With Google Classroom” now available on Amazon. For a tour of Google Classroom visit 50thingsbook.com.




Things You Can Do With Google Classroom

  1. Sharing Resources: Google Classroom allows you to take a document, video or link and push it out to your students.
  2. Create a Lesson: More than simply assigning work to students, Google Classroom allows you to build an assignment. Include a description and attach multiple documents, links and videos. This puts the entire lesson in one place.
  3. Make Class Announcements: Google Classroom gives you a place to post your announcements. Unlike a website with one way communication, students can comment back on the announcement.
  4. Go Paperless: Using Google Docs you no longer need to collect and pass out paper. You can assign students a blank Google Doc or use a template that your students will fill out. Google Classroom creates a copy for each student and gives them a turn in button for when they are done.                                                                                                                                                                                                        

    "Must Read:" What is Google Classroom.All about Google classroom ?

  5. Simplify the Turn In Process: When using Google Documents, notoriously students forget to change the sharing settings or to turn in their work. Google Classroom eliminates this issue by placing the document in the teacher and the students Google Drive immediately. Students simply need to “turn in” within Google Classroom to signal the teacher they are ready to have their work assessed.
  6. Protect Privacy: Rather than creating a global folder shared with all of the students in the class, Google Classroom restricts access to the documents to the teacher and the individual student.
  7. Reduce Cheating: Since the entire classes documents are not in a shared folder the temptation to copy another students work is eliminated.
  8. Classroom Collaboration: When sharing a document the teacher is able to choose if the students can view the document or can edit it. Creating a document and giving all the students in the class editing access to that same document allows every student to contribute their piece to a class project.
  9. Create a Discussion: A spreadsheet can be utilized to collect student opinions on a discussion topic. The ability to have multiple tabs allows for multiple discussion questions. Sharing a single Google spreadsheet with student editing access gets everyone on the same page quickly and gives every student a voice in the discussion.
  10. Organize Assignments with Due Dates: In creating an assignment in Google Classroom you are able to assign a due date that is clear for both you and the students.
  11. Capture the Middle of the Process: An important shift in the teacher student relationship is to get away from evaluator and focus on being a coach to your students. Google Classroom places all of the students work into a folder that is easily accessible from your Google Drive. While students are in the middle of working on their assignment you are able to go in and insert comments and guide them through the process.
  12. Email Students: No longer do you need to create a group of student email addresses, Google Classroom allows you to email everyone at once.
  13. Notify Students Who May Need Help: Google Classroom show you who has and has not completed an assignment. Send an email notification providing tips for success and encouraging the student to work on the assignment.
  14. Assignment Q&A: When an assignment is posted to Google Classroom the students have the ability to comment on it. No longer do students have to wait to be called on to ask a question. This transcends the walls of the classroom to allow students to ask questions outside of class. When the teacher posts the response it is available to all of the students.
  15. Create an Ad Hoc Playlist: Google Classroom allows you to attach multiple YouTube videos to an announcement or assignment.
  16. Email Feedback: When returning work to students you can provide a global note to all the students or individually provide feedback. Google Classroom provides the ability to post a note to the assignment from the teacher, and allow the student to comment back. This replaces the one sided note in the margin of the students paper, providing a more dynamic experience.
  17. Create Folders: What was once a cumbersome process in Google Drive is now done automatically. The teacher has a folder in Google Drive that contains a folder for each assignment. This makes locating student work a snap!
  18. Link Directly: While Google Classroom places the student work into a folder for the teacher to find, a student list with a link to the students work is easily accessible directly from Google Classroom. This reduces the need of the teacher to dig through their Google Drive to find the work a student has completed.
  19. Multiple Files in an Assignment: Google Classroom allows you to assign more than a single document. This means students can create a multi-stage project and submit all of their pieces in one place.
  20. Easily View Student Submission: Google Classroom clearly counts how many students have and have not submitted an assignment.
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What is Google Classroom.All about Google classroom ?

What is Google Classroom.All about Google classroom ?

Google’s advance in the education field has brought to schools around the globe affordable devices and effortless access to educational content. Google’s latest solution for learning is called Google Classroom. Although Google Classroom will be available at the beginning of the school year to all schools that have adopted Google Apps for Education, its ability to seamlessly integrate Google Docs, Sheets,Drive, Gmail, and more in order to provide a wonderful and highly productive user experience.

Google Classroom is a free web-based platform that integrates your Google Apps for Education account with all your Google Apps services, including Google Docs, Gmail, and Google Calendar. Classroom saves time and paper, and makes it easy to create classes, distribute assignments, communicate, and stay organized.

Teachers can quickly see who has or hasn't completed the work, and provide direct, real-time feedback and grades right in Classroom. 

Classroom is available to anyone with Google Apps for Education, a free suite of productivity tools including Gmail, Drive and Docs.

Classroom is designed to help teachers create and collect assignments paperlessly, including time-saving features such as the ability to automatically make a copy of a Google Document for each student. It also creates Drive folders for each assignment and for each student to help keep everyone organised.

Students can keep track of what’s due on the Assignments page and begin working with just a click. Teachers can quickly see who has or hasn't completed the work, and provide direct, real-time feedback and marks from within Classroom.

Benefits for classes

Easy to set up
Teachers can add students directly or share a code with their class to join. It takes just minutes to set up.

Saves time
The simple, paperless assignment workflow allows teachers to create, review and mark assignments quickly, all in one place.

Improves organisation
Students can see all of their assignments on an assignments page, and all class materials are automatically filed into folders in Google Drive.

Enhances communication
Classroom allows teachers to send announcements and start class discussions instantly. Students can share resources with each other or provide answers to questions on the stream.

Affordable and secure
Like the rest of our Google Apps for Education services, Classroom contains no ads, never uses your content or student data for advertising purposes, and is free for schools.

Things You Can Do With Google Classroom

Overall Design & Purpose
Google Classroom’s design is absolutely stunning. Following the latest design trends, the interface is simple, elegant, and free of unnecessary distractions, created to help the user focus on productivity. 
Google Classroom features some of the best tools teachers can use to manage and distribute assignments and class announcements. Also, it provides teachers and students with a safe environment to communicate with each other and exchange ideas and comments on educational content. Of course, all these perks come absolutely free, and because this is a Google product, you are guaranteed a user experience of superb quality.

Paperless Classrooms
Regardless of the subject you teach, Google Classroom is a fantastic tool for teachers who wish to create a paperless classroom environment that allows the teacher to have instant access to student work, and manage every aspect of the classroom workflow digitally. With Google Classroom a teacher can manage multiple classes. Within the Google Classroom environment, the teacher can create and distribute assignments and announcements to each class, edit and return student work for revision, grade student work, initiate and participate in whole class or private discussions, and have overall a seamless paperless assignment workflow that eliminates all the tedious and time consuming tasks that take up a lot of instructional time. This extra time can be allocated to learning.

The true power of Google Classroom lies in the fact that it weaves together Google Docs, Sheets, Gmail, and Drive to eliminate the need for hard copies. 
This allows teachers to:
• Create a document, a spreadsheet, a presentation, or a form
• Distribute this assignment to students
• Customize due dates, organization of content, and copies of the assignment for every student

Obviously, Google Classroom can be a useful tool for 1:1 and BYOD settings, where every student is able to access class content on his/her device, and receive real-time feedback from their teacher.


Flipped Classrooms
Google Classroom may be the perfect tool a teacher can use to flip a lesson or an entire class. The flipped classroom’s ability to personalize learning to all students and make them take ownership of their learning can be greatly enhanced with Google Classroom. For instance, videos, presentations, and other material can be delivered to students outside of class using Google Classroom. Students can not only access and review content, but also have a safe avenue for online discussions with their teacher or other students that can clarify misconceptions and help students master the content. In addition, due to the fact that often many students have the same questions, Google Classroom’s discussion threads, which are visible to all students, can be a lifesaver for many students, especially for the ones who are too shy to ask questions overtly.

Professional Development
Google Classroom’s primary purpose is be used in the classroom by teachers and students, however, nothing can stop us from finding more creative ways to take advantage of such a wonderful tool of content delivery and organization. Since we are approaching the beginning of the school year, naturally, professional development might be one of the areas that comes first to mind.

Google Classroom can be used by schools and districts to organize and deliver professional development content for teachers. In fact, our school will be one of the first schools in the country that will use Google Classroom for this purpose this coming school year. Trainers/presenters can create a class/training and import the participants/teachers in the class, or simply send them an email with the code to access the class. Before, during, or after the training, the presenter can share with the participants a number of resources such as presentation slides, multimedia files, and other documents. The participants can communicate live with each other during the training, exchanging ideas and working collaboratively on projects. 
Finally, after the training, due to the fact that when someone uses Google Classroom, a folder is created in their Drive and all content is saved in that folder automatically, the participants will have access to all of the materials they used or developed in the training, not to mention the fact that during the training they will have gained a lot of knowledge about how to use Google Classroom with their own students!
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History of Web Search Engines.

History of Web Search Engines.

The goal of all search engines is to find and organize distributed data found on the Internet. Before search engines were developed, the Internet was a collection of File Transfer Protocol (FTP) sites in which users would navigate to find specific shared files. As the central list of web servers joining the Internet grew, and the World Wide Web became the interface of choice for accessing the Internet, the need for finding and organizing the distributed data files on FTP web servers grew. Search engines began due to this need to more easily navigate the web servers and files on the Internet.

The first search engine was developed as a school project by Alan Emtage, a student at McGill University in Montreal. Back in 1990, Alan created Archie, an index (or archives) of computer files stored on anonymous FTP web sites in a given network of computers (“Archie” rather than “Archives” fit name length parameters – thus it became the name of the first search engine). In 1991, Mark McCahill, a student at the University of Minnesota, effectively used a hypertext paradigm to create Gopher, which also searched for plain text references in files.

Archie and Gopher’s searchable database of websites did not have natural language keyword capabilities used in modern search engines. Rather, in 1993 the graphical Mosaic web browser improved upon Gopher’s primarily text-based interface. About the same time, Matthew Gray developed Wandex, the first search engine in the form that we know search engines today. Wandex’s technology was the first to crawl the web indexing and searching the catalog of indexed pages on the web. Another significant development in search engines came in 1994 when WebCrawler’s search engine began indexing the full text of web sites instead of just web page titles.

While both web directories and search engines gained popularity in  the 1990s, search engines developed a life of their own becoming the preferred method of Internet search. For example, the major search engines found in use today originated in development between 1993 and 1998.

Excite – Born in 1993


Excite Logo

Excite was born in February 1993 as a university project called Architext involving six undergraduate students at Stanford seeking to use statistical analysis of word relationships to improve relevancy of searches on the Internet. This school project eventually led to Excite’s commercial release as a crawling search engine at the end of 1995. With solid growth in 1996, Excite purchased WebCrawler and Magellan. Toward the end of the 1990s, Excite partnered with MSN and Netscape providing search services. In 1999, Excite was sold to broadband provider @Home.com (later becoming Excite@Home) as part of a $6.7 billion merger after its traffic started to decline with the release of Google in 1998. With significant debts, Excite@Home filed for bankruptcy in October 2001 and sold its high-speed network to AT&T for $307 million. A month later, InfoSpace made a $10 million bid to buy Excite@Home’s assets including domain names and trademarks from bankruptcy court. 
Infospace’s offer was accepted and they subsequently powered the Excite web site and sold portal components to iWon. InfoSpace’s Dogpile crawler replaced Excite’s making Dogpile and Excite’s search results the same. Both Excite and Dogpile are also powered by LookSmart’s directory, except that Dogpile includes a number of other InfoSpace directories. Also as part of the deal, InfoSpace acquired rights to WebCrawler. Ask Jeeves (now Ask.com) purchased the Excite.com portal in 2004. Now, Excite offers search results through a metasearch tool combining results from pay-per-click and natural search tools.

Yahoo! - Born in 1994


Yahoo! Logo

David Filo and Jerry Yang started Yahoo! in 1994. Originally it was a highly regarded directory of sites that were cataloged by human editors. This directory provided an extensive listing of websites supported by a network of regional directories. In 2001, Yahoo! started charging a fee for inclusion in its directory listing. Yahoo!’s action helped control the number of sites listed and helped cover costs with additional revenue.


Initially, Yahoo! used secondary search engine services to support its directory. Partnerships have included agreements with Inktomi and Google. In October 2002, Yahoo shifted to crawler-based listing for its search results. In 2004, Yahoo! purchased Overture’s pay-per-click service, which had only months earlier purchased AltaVista and AlltheWeb, and Inktomi’s search database. With these acquisitions, Yahoo! combined these tools to create its own search index. Today, Overture is renamed Yahoo! Search Marketing and provides paid search advertising revenue. The Yahoo! Directory remains one of the top indexes powering search listings.

WebCrawler – Born in 1994


WebCrawler Logo

WebCrawler was the first search engine to provide full text search. In 1994, Brian Pinkerton, a Computer Science and Engineering student at the University of Washington, used his spare time to create WebCrawler. With WebCrawler, Brian generated a list of the Top 25 websites on March 15, 1994. Only a month later on April 20, 1994, Brian announced the release of WebCrawler live on the web with a database of 4000 websites. On June 11, 1994, Brian posted to the Usenet group comp.infosystems.announce that the WebCrawler Index was available for searching. By November 14, 1994, WebCrawler served its one millionth query. By the end of the year, WebCrawler signed two sponsors, DealerNet and Starwave providing needed capital to finance WebCrawler. A little less than a year later, WebCrawler was fully operating on advertising revenue.


A young America Online, without access to the web, acquired WebCrawler on June 1, 1995. On September 4, 1995, Spidey was created as WebCrawler’s mascot. On April 1, 1997 (no fooling), WebCrawler was sold by AOL to Excite. Initially, WebCrawler was going to run by its own dedicated team within Excite, but eventually the two were merged together on the same back end. In 2001, Excite went bankrupt and was purchased by InfoSpace. As part of the agreement, InfoSpace acquired WebCrawler. Today, InfoSpace runs WebCrawler as a meta-search tool blending results from Google, Yahoo!, Live Search (formerly MSN Search), Ask, About.com, MIVA, LookSmart, and others. As for Spidey, he is now purple.

Lycos – Born in 1994


Lycos Logo

Lycos was one of the earliest search engines developed in 1994 at Carnegie Mellon University by Dr. Michael Mauldin and a team of researchers. The Lycos name came from the Latin term “lycosidea” referencing wolf spiders that hunt and actively stalk prey. The company was founded on $2 million in venture capital funding from CMGI. The company was headed by Bob Davis, who concentrated on building Lycos into an advertising-supported web portal. The company went public in April of the next year with little money. With phenomenal growth in its catalog, Lycos had the largest index at the end of 1996 with 60 million documents. In 1997, Lycos Pro was launched with a new search algorithm and continued to grow. By 1999, Lycos would emerge from a crowded pack to become the most-visited web portal. Over the next few years, Lycos would become one of the most profitable Internet businesses and acquired nearly two dozen high profile Internet brands.


For example, in February 1998, Lycos acquired Tripod Inc., a website where people built their own web pages. That summer, language search was introduced and the search results pages were redesigned. At this same time, WhoWhere Inc.’s directory services and Mail City’s email services were acquired for $133 million in stock. Toward the end of 1998, Lycos acquired Wired Digital (owner of HotBot) for $83 million.

By 1999, Lycos was one of the most visited search tools on the web  and would continue to be involved in new projects and acquisitions.  In February that same year, Lycos became USA/Lycos Interactive Networks when USA Networks bought a 61.5% ownership in the company for $18 billion. As a result, Lycos later announced a project to create a search tool to query information on USATODAY.com’s news site. In April 1999, Lycos joined the Open Directory Project run by Netscape. In June 1999, Lycos joined with Intelliseek to provide a directory of over 7,400 databases previously not on the web. In September 1999, Lycos acquired Quote.com, an investment information site and launched the Lycos Zone, an educational website for kids with content filtering. Finally, in December 1999, Lycos invested in FAST search technology which began powering Lycos advanced search technology.

In May 2000, Terra Networks, an Internet arm of the Spanish telecommunications giant Telef?nica, purchased Lycos for $5.4 billion, forming a new company Terra Lycos. This takeover marked a 3,000 times return on the initial venture capital investment and 20 times the initial public offering value. Lycos remained the name of the US franchise brand. Overseas, the company was known as Terra Networks, and founder Bob Davis left the company.

Lycos suffered from the dotcom crash in 2001. In late 2001, Lycos abandoned its own crawler and began serving results exclusively from FAST. In August 2004, Terra sold Lycos to Daum Communications Corporation for $95.4 million. This low number was less than 2% of Terra’s initial investment. By October 2004, the deal was finalized and the company name returned to Lycos.

With new ownership, Lycos refocused on becoming a community destination for broadband entertainment rather than a search portal. In July 2006, Wired News, which had been a part of Lycos since the acquisition of Wired Digital in 1998, was sold. The Lycos Finance division, known for Quote.com and Raging Bull.com, and it’s online dating site, Matchmaker.com, were also sold. Lycos also regained ownership of the Lycos trademark from Carnegie Mellon University allowing it to become Lycos, Inc.

Since 2006, Lycos has announced the introduction of Lycos Phone, Lycos Mail, and Lycos MIX. These services and tools combine IM video chat, mp3 player, and unlimited file size sending and receiving via email, video watch and chat, and social media applications. Lycos remains a top 25 Internet destination, is the 13th largest online property worldwide and remains a top 5 Internet portal behind Yahoo!, MSN, AOL, and MySpace.

Infoseek – Born in 1994


Infoseek Logo

Infoseek, also known as the “big yellow,” was founded by Steve Kirsch in 1994. At the start in January 1994, InfoSeek was a pay-for-use service. The fee service was dropped in August 1994 and Infoseek was re-presented as Infoseek Search in February 1995.


Infoseek’s position in the search engine world was accelerated in 1995 by a deal with Netscape in which it became the default Netscape search engine. In June 1996, Infoseek went public and by September the next year served 7.3 million visitors per month.

Infoseek uniquely featured a very complex system of search modifiers including Boolean modifiers. In November 1996, InfoSeek introduced Ultrasmart/Ultraseek and redesigned its website the next year to include channel or directory information. By March of 1998, Infoseek included a search page with advanced search techniques. Infoseek also uniquely offered a free web hosting service without advertising and had no limit on the amount of storage space for users.

In the summer of 1998, 43% of Infoseek was bought by Disney. From this point forward Infoseek was part of the Disney Corporation’s vast media business. The deal included Infoseek acquisition of Starwave Corporation, including ESPN.com and ABCNews.com. Infoseek’s technology was then merged with Starwave’s to form the Go.com network. In July 1999, Disney had a 72% interest in Go.com and Disney’s media interest included Disney.com, Family.com, ABC.com, ABCNews.com, and ESPN.com.

Aside from its relationship with Disney, Infoseek continued to change. In September 1998, Infoseek began offering a combination of manually-reviewed and traditional web-search results. The next month, Infoseek took over Excite as the default search engine on Microsoft’s WebTV and Infoseek Express, a free software website, was launched. In 1999, Li Yanhong, an Infoseek engineer, moved to Beijing, China and co-founded the search engine Baidu.

In the summer of 2000, Infoseek’s Ultraseek Server software technology was sold to Inktomi and renamed Inktomi Enterprise Search. In December 2002 (prior to Yahoo!’s purchase of Inktomi) Ultraseek was sold to a competitor Verity Inc. Verity re-established the Ultraseek brand name and development of the product until it was acquired by Autonomy PLC in December 2005. Autonomy continues developing and marketing Ultraseek’s site search.
In February 2001, many Infoseek employees tried to collectively buy out Infoseek from Disney when Disney laid off the entire Infoseek staff. Today, the Infoseek.com domain forwards to Go.com and the brand name is unused in North America. Only in Japan (as Infoseek Japan) and Australia (Infoseek Australia) is the Infoseek name used.

AltaVista – Born in 1995


AltaVista Logo

AltaVista, meaning “a view from above,” developed out of research by scientists at Digital Equipment Corporation’s (DEC) Western Research Laboratory in Palo Alto, California during the spring of 1995. They were trying to showcase their computer database system called the Alpha 8400 TurboLaser that was faster than its competitors. Scientists developed a search tool to crawl, store and quickly index every word of all HTML web pages on the Internet. This new search tool was powerful. For example, in August 1995, it conducted its first full-scale crawl of the web bringing back about 10 million pages.


The two key scientists involved with AltaVista’s development were  Louis Monier and Michael Burrows. Louis wrote the crawler (called Scooter) and Michael wrote the indexer. After testing the new search engine with 10,000 DEC employees, AltaVista opened to the public on December 15, 1995 at altavista.digital.com. Initially, the back-end processing machines received 13 million queries per day. With its release, AltaVista became the first searchable full-text database on the World Wide Web with a simple interface. Over 300,000 visitors used the search tool on the first day and had 19 million hits by the end of 1996, and 80 million per day at the end of 1997.

Ironically in 1996, AltaVista started exclusively providing search results for Yahoo! who would one day become AltaVista’s owner. Before this time, DEC was acquired by Compaq for $9.6 billion at the start of 1998. Despite success as a modest search interface, in 1999 Compaq released AltaVista as a web portal once again ironically hoping to compete with Yahoo! It may be reasoned that AltaVista’s portal strategy was a cause of its eventual decline as well as the rise of Google. By 2002, efforts returned to sharpening the quality of the simple search interface.

In June 1999, CMGI, an Internet investment company with 20% ownership in Lycos, agreed to acquire 83 percent of AltaVista. CMGI planned a public offering of AltaVista in April 2000, but cancelled the IPO as the Internet bubble collapsed.

Near the end of 2002, AltaVista became the first Internet search engine to offer image, audio, and video search as part of a new range of multimedia functionalities. Additionally, AltaVista gained innovative recognition for its release of Babel Fish, the web’s first-ever multi-lingual Internet search. Babel Fish could translate words, phrases, or entire website to and from English, Spanish, French, German, Portuguese, Italian, and Russian. With its advanced multimedia search capabilities and language translation and recognition services, AltaVista was likely the Internet’s most technologically advanced search tool at the time.
In February 2003, Overture purchased AltaVista for $140 million. This price was a fraction of AltaVista’s valuation of $2.3 billion three years earlier. Unfortunately, AltaVista’s likelihood to continue its innovative heritage with Overture Services, Inc. was quickly killed when Yahoo! purchased Overture at the end of 2003. With this purchase, AltaVista became Yahoo! using the same search index and user interface. In May 2008, AltaVista’s Babel Fish translation service was also branded under its parent company as Yahoo! Babel Fish.

Inktomi – Born in 1996


Inktomi Logo

Inktomi was founded in February 1996 by Eric Brewer, an assistant professor of computer science at the University of California Berkeley, and Paul Gauthier, a graduate student. They were involved in a government research project funded by the US government’s Advanced Research Projects Agency on parallel computing between personal computers and workstations making them function like a supercomputer. In the process they founded a company based upon their success developing a search tool.

The company was named after a mythical Lakota Indian spider known for cunning rather than brute force. After formation with Dave Perterschmidt as CEO, Brewer as the chief scientist, and Gauthier as the chief technology officer, the company established its first customer with HotWired who introduced the search engine HotBot in 1996. HotBot included Inktomi’s Audience 1 software that customized web pages and advertisements according to the user’s browser. HotBot eventually evolved into newer versions including 5.0 released in 1998 using a Windows NT rather than Unix platform. The interface and server infrastructure was changed to increase usability and offer new features.

Inktomi was not just a search provider; its mission was to build scalable software applications at the core of the Internet. As such, Inktomi’s efforts drove many of the search tool developments and functionalities of known search tools and also management tools of  Internet traffic and capabilities in general. For example in 1997, Inktomi beta tested web traffic servers that managed network data flow eliminating bottlenecks and redundant Internet and corporate Intranet traffic and bandwidth. The servers used caching to create localized repositories of information.
This moved information closer to the user rather than relying each time on the Internet’s backbone. At the time, the amount of redundant traffic on the Internet was between 40 and 80 percent. Accordingly, a large market existed for such technology with Internet service providers, network providers, and business enterprises. A large customer who took interest in Inktomi’s traffic server technologies was Microsoft in 1997. Microsoft agreed to use Inktomi’s traffic server and search engine technology in the Microsoft Network starting in 1998.

Starting in 1998, Inktomi signed many customer deals. America Online and Digex Inc. became licensees of Inktomi’s Traffic Server and began using it in their own networks later that year. Inktomi also worked out deals with Digital Equipment Corporation and Intel to port Traffic Server with their Unix and Windows NT platforms. Also in May of 1998, Yahoo! decided to use Inktomi’s search engine technology as their preferred choice. All of these deals influenced Inktomi’s initial public offering in June 1998. The price of the share the first day doubled from $18 to $36 and a month later was trading at $90. In November 1998 it had climbed to $130 a share.

Some other significant events in 1998 included the release of Traffic Server 2.0 with a streaming media cache, more protocols, and other performance and support functions. That same year, Inktomi acquired C2B Technologies for about $90 million, helping development of shopping search abilities and services for customers like Yahoo! and New Media. The shopping engine debuted in the spring of 1999. About the same time, Inktomi acquired ImpulseBuy.net for $110 million, providing a database and more capabilities for merchants. As its ecommerce shopping services expanded in 1999, Inktomi upgraded and released Traffic Server 3.0. Traffic Server 3.0 included more support for operating systems including Windows NT and new application programming interfaces allowing third party providers to provide value-added services. As a result, with Traffic Server 3.0’s release, Inktomi announced partnerships with six service partners.

In August 1999, a secondary stock offering was made raising $300 million. About the same time, Inktomi purchased WebSpective Software for $106 million. Towards the end of the year, Inktomi released Traffic Server E5000 and Traffic Server E200. These traffic servers helped corporate networks manage data for users without having to use the entire network and server infrastructure. At the end of 1999, America Online dropped Excite for Inktomi’s database to power its search engine. Likewise, MSN dropped AltaVista, whom they had moved to using earlier in the year, for Inktomi.

In 2000, Inktomi created alliances with several partners to enter the  wireless Internet infrastructure market. In June 2000, Inktomi acquired Ultraseek from Infoseek for $344.7 million. Inktomi announced creation of a 500 million record search engine database called GEN3. In August 2000, Inktomi created an alliance with America Online and Adero Inc. to form the Content Bridge distribution network. The Content Bridge would allow web producers and hosts of information and ecommerce, to pay to have their content pushed to caching servers of a large network of Internet hosting delivery providers. Right before the Content Bridge was to begin operation in January 2001, Adero backed out and sold its interest to Inktomi for $23.5 million.

In another big business deal in 2000, Inktomi acquired FastForward  Networks for $1.3 billion. FastForward Networks dropped its name and became a part of Inktomi’s media division. FastForward Network was a software developer for Internet broadcasts providing support for thousands of simultaneous Internet broadcasts. With this acquisition, Inktomi was able to release a product suite called Media Distribution Network that handled distribution of steaming media in a network. The Media Distribution Network suite complimented well their Content Delivery Suite for managing and distributing static content.

In 2001, Inktomi introduced its Search Everywhere solution integrating Inktomi’s various search products. Inktomi also commenced enhancing its search engine software with enterprise-level XML (Extensible Markup Language) and more comprehensive search results including relevance, classification and rankings. Inktomi added a distributed crawling architecture scanning the web more frequently with content blending from separate databases. In February 2001, Inktomi released Traffic Server 4.0 extending the platform to Linux operating systems with increased processing power and performance. In May 2001, Inktomi introduced a pay-for-placement program called Index Connect in which participants could submit meta information about multimedia and other files enabling them to appear in search results.

About the same time, in order to lessen the strain of its ecommerce business, Inktomi sold off its ecommerce division with its shopping  search engine and customer base to e-centives, an online marketing firm. Meanwhile, Inktomi expanded its content distribution services. In July 2001, Inktomi acquired eScene Networks with its streaming media sales. From this acquisition was developed the Inktomi Media Publisher with capabilities for business to catalog, index and publish their multimedia content.

Despite successful acquisitions and product releases, Inktomi sustained financial losses during 2001. With the dotcom bubble bust came economic strains to the Internet business sector. As a result, Inktomi cut back its workforce. Inktomi’s stock values decreased, causing a significant loss for the year.

In March 2003, Inktomi was purchased by Yahoo! for $235 million.   Inktomi continued to provide results to Yahoo! rival MSN Search. Meanwhile, Google continued to provide results to Yahoo! In February 2004, Yahoo! replaced Google with a search engine based on Inktomi’s technologies.

Ask Jeeves (now Ask) – Born in 1997


Ask Jeeves Logo

Ask was developed in 1996 by Garret Gruener and David Warthen and launched in 1997 as Ask Jeeves. In 2006, the “Jeeves” name was removed; revamping its image after Ask Jeeves was purchased in 2005 by Barry Diller’s InterActiveCorp (IAC). Originally as Ask Jeeves, human editors listed the prominent sites along with paid listings and results pulled from partner sites. Following acquisition of Direct Hit in 2000 and Teoma in 2001, Ask commenced developing its own search technology. With financial growth, Ask has acquired other companies including Excite and iWon.


Today, with emphasis on paid inclusion listings, Ask struggles for market share against Google, Yahoo!, and MSN Search.

Google – Born in 1997


Google Logo

Google was founded in 1998 as another school project at Stanford University in California. In January 1996, Stanford PhD students Larry Page and Sergey Brin began researching the concept of a search engine based on relevancy ranking. Page and Brin believed that search engines should analyze and rank websites based on the number of times search terms appeared on web pages. Likewise, Page and Brin developed a search engine nicknamed “BackRub.” BackRub checked the number and quality of links coming back to websites in order to estimate the value of a website. Brin and Page’s research eventually led them to develop the trademarked PageRank™ link analysis algorithm that Google’s search engine would use to assign a numerical weighting to hyperlinked document elements.


In 2000, Google replaced Inktomi as the provider of search results to Yahoo! and later AOL and Netscape. Even though Yahoo! broke away from Google in 2004, its market share has continued to grow to account for about 70 percent of all web searches. Google’s market share has steadily increased over the years.

MSN Search (now Windows Live) – Born in 1998


MSN Search LogoMSN Search was a service offered as part of Microsoft’s network of web services. The Microsoft Network debuted as an online service and Internet service provider in August 1995. During the 1990s, Microsoft launched Internet Explorer as a bundled part of their operating system and software products. MSN Search first launched in 1998 displaying search results from Inktomi and later blending results with Looksmart. For a short time in 1999, AltaVista search results were used instead of Inktomi. Since 2004, MSN Search began using its own built-in search results. Since this time, MSNBot has continually crawled the web. Today, image search is powered by Picsearch. MSN Search was renamed Windows Live in 2006.

Overture – Born in 1998


Overture Logo

Overture is considered the pioneer of paid search. It was launched by Bill Gross in 1998 as GoTo. Overture was overpowered by Google when AOL selected Google as an ad partner. Overture bought AltaVista and AllTheWeb with hopes of gaining leverage against Google, but they ultimately were purchased by Yahoo! in 2003.

AllTheWeb – Born in 1999


AlltheWeb Logo

AllTheWeb was launched in 1999 showcasing FAST’s Web Search Division search technologies. It is sometimes referred to as FAST or FAST Search. In April 2003, ALLTheWeb was bought by Overture for $70 million in 2003 and rolled into Yahoo! Search after Yahoo! purchased Overture.
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Google AdSense Online Terms of Service

Google AdSense Online Terms of Service

Google AdSense Online Terms of Service
Last modified 2013-04-16.
1.    Welcome to AdSense!
Thank you for your interest in our search and advertising services (the “Services”)!  
By using our Services, you agree to these terms (the “AdSense Terms”), the AdSense Program Policies, and the Google Branding Guidelines (collectively, the “Agreement”). If ever in conflict, to the extent of such conflict, the AdSense Terms will take precedence over any other terms of the Agreement. Please read the Agreement carefully.

As used in the Agreement, “you” or “publisher” means the individual or entity using the Services (and/or any individual, entity or successor entity, agency or network acting on your behalf), “we”, “us” or “Google” means Google Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd., and the “parties” means you and Google.
2.    Access to the Services; AdSense Accounts
Your use of the Services is subject to your creation and our approval of an AdSense account (an “Account”). We have the right to refuse or limit your access to the Services. By submitting an application to use the Services, if you are an individual, you represent that you are at least 18 years of age. You may only have one Account.

By enrolling in AdSense, you permit Google to serve, as applicable, (i) advertisements and other content (“Ads”), (ii) Google search boxes and search results and (iii) related search queries and other links to your websites, mobile applications, media players, mobile content and/or other properties approved by Google (each individually a “Property”). In addition, you grant Google the right to access, index and cache the Properties or any portion thereof, including by automated means. Google may refuse to provide the Services to any Property.

Any Property that is a software application and accesses our Services (a) may require preapproval by Google in writing, and (b) must comply with Google’s Software Principles.
3.    Using our Services
You may use our Services only as permitted by this Agreement and any applicable laws. Don’t misuse our Services. For example, don’t interfere with our Services or try to access them using a method other than the interface and the instructions that we provide.

You may discontinue your use of any Service at any time by removing the relevant code from your Properties.
4.    Changes to our Services; Changes to the Agreement
We are constantly changing and improving our Services. We may add or remove functionalities or features of the Services at any time, and we may suspend or stop a Service altogether.
We may modify the Agreement at any time. We’ll post any modifications to the AdSense Terms on this page and any modifications to the AdSense Program Policies or the Google Branding Guidelines on their respective pages. Changes will not apply retroactively and generally will become effective 30 days after they are posted. However, changes addressing new functions for a Service or changes made for legal reasons will be effective immediately. If you don’t agree to any modified terms in the Agreement, you’ll have to stop using the affected Services.
5.    Payments
Subject to this Section 5 and Section 10 of these AdSense Terms, you will receive a payment related to the number of valid clicks on Ads displayed on your Properties, the number of valid impressions of Ads displayed on your Properties or other valid events performed in connection with the display of Ads on your Properties, in each case as determined by Google.

Except in the event of termination, we will pay you by the end of the calendar month following any calendar month in which the earned balance in your Account equals or exceeds the applicable payment threshold. If you implement search Services, our payments may be offset by any applicable fees for such Services.

Unless expressly authorised in writing by Google, you may not enter into any type of arrangement with a third party where that third party receives payments made to you under the Agreement or other financial benefit in relation to the Services.
Payments will be calculated solely based on our accounting. Payments to you may be withheld to reflect or adjusted to exclude any amounts refunded or credited to advertisers and any amounts arising from invalid activity, as determined by Google in its sole discretion. Invalid activity is determined by Google in all cases and includes, but is not limited to, (i) spam, invalid queries, invalid impressions or invalid clicks on Ads generated by any person, bot, automated program or similar device, including through any clicks or impressions originating from your IP addresses or computers under your control; (ii) clicks solicited or impressions generated by payment of money, false representation or requests for end users to click on Ads or take other actions; (iii) Ads served to end users whose browsers have JavaScript disabled and (iv) clicks or impressions co-mingled with a significant amount of the activity described in (i, ii and iii) above.

In addition to our other rights and remedies, we may (a) withhold and offset any payments owed to you under the Agreement against any fees that you owe us under the Agreement or any other agreement, or (b) require you to refund us within 30 days of any invoice, any amounts we may have overpaid to you in prior periods. If you dispute any payment made or withheld relating to the Services, you must notify Google in writing within 30 days of any such payment. If you do not, any claim relating to the disputed payment is waived. If an advertiser whose Ads are displayed on any Property defaults on payment to Google, we may withhold payment or charge back your account.

To ensure proper payment, you are responsible for providing and maintaining accurate contact and payment information in your Account. You are responsible for any charges assessed by your bank or payment provider.
6. Taxes
As between you and Google, Google is responsible for all taxes (if any) associated with the transactions between Google and advertisers in connection with Ads displayed on the Properties. You are responsible for all taxes (if any) associated with the Services, other than taxes based on Google’s net income. All payments to you from Google in relation to the Services will be treated as inclusive of tax (if applicable) and will not be adjusted. If Google is obligated to withhold any taxes from its payments to you, Google will notify you of this and will make the payments net of the withheld amounts. Google will provide you with original or certified copies of tax payments (or other sufficient evidence of tax payments) if any of these payments are made by Google.
7.    Intellectual Property; Brand Features
Other than as set out expressly in the Agreement, neither party will acquire any right, title or interest in any intellectual property rights belonging to the other party or to the other party’s licensors.

If Google provides you with software in connection with the Services, we grant you a non-exclusive, non-sublicensable licence for use of such software. This licence is for the sole purpose of enabling you to use and enjoy the benefit of the Services as provided by Google, in the manner permitted by the Agreement. You may not copy, modify, distribute, sell or lease any part of our Services or included software, nor may you reverse engineer or attempt to extract the source code of that software, unless laws prohibit those restrictions or you have our written permission. You will not remove, obscure or alter Google’s copyright notice, Brand Features or other proprietary rights notices affixed to or contained within any Google services, software or documentation.

We grant you a non-exclusive, non-sublicensable licence to use Google’s trade names, trademarks, service marks, logos, domain names and other distinctive brand features (“Brand Features”) solely in connection with your use of the Services and in accordance with the Agreement and the Google Branding Guidelines. We may revoke this licence at any time. Any goodwill arising from your use of Google’s Brand Features will belong to Google.

We may include your name and Brand Features in our presentations, marketing materials, customer lists and financial reports.
8.    Privacy
Our privacy policy explains how we treat your personal data and protect your privacy when you use our Services. By using our Services, you agree that Google can use such data in accordance with our privacy policy.

You will ensure that at all times you use the Services, the Properties have a clearly labelled and easily accessible privacy policy that provides end users with clear and comprehensive information about cookies, device-specific information, location information and other information stored on, accessed on, or collected from end users’ devices in connection with the Services, including, as applicable, information about end users’ options for cookie management. You will use commercially reasonable efforts to ensure that an end user gives consent to the storing and accessing of cookies, device-specific information, location information or other information on the end user's device in connection with the Services where such consent is required by law.
9.    Confidentiality
You agree not to disclose Google Confidential Information without our prior written consent. "Google Confidential Information" includes: (a) all Google software, technology and documentation relating to the Services; (b) click-through rates or other statistics relating to Property performance as pertaining to the Services; (c) the existence of, and information about, beta features in a Service and (d) any other information made available by Google that is marked confidential or would normally be considered confidential under the circumstances in which it is presented. Google Confidential Information does not include information that you already knew prior to your use of the Services, that becomes public through no fault of yours, that was independently developed by you, or that was lawfully given to you by a third party. Notwithstanding this Section 9, you may accurately disclose the amount of Google’s gross payments resulting from your use of the Services.
10. Termination
You may terminate the Agreement at any time by completing the account cancellation process. The Agreement will be considered terminated within 10 working days of Google's receipt of your notice. If you terminate the Agreement and your earned balance equals or exceeds the applicable threshold, we will pay you your earned balance within approximately 90 days after the end of the calendar month in which the Agreement is terminated. Any earned balance below the applicable threshold will remain unpaid.

Google may at any time terminate the Agreement, or suspend or terminate the participation of any Property in the Services for any reason. The parties agree to waive any provisions of local law which may limit, restrict, require a court order or otherwise inhibit Google’s ability to terminate this Agreement at its sole discretion. If we terminate the Agreement due to your breach or due to invalid activity, we may withhold unpaid amounts or charge back your account. If you breach the Agreement or Google suspends or terminates your Account, you (i) will not be allowed to create a new Account and (ii) may not be permitted to monetise content on other Google products.
11.  Indemnity
You agree to indemnify and defend Google, its affiliates, agents and advertisers from and against any and all third-party claims and liabilities arising out of or related to the Properties, including any content served on the Properties that is not provided by Google, your use of the Services, or your breach of any term of the Agreement. Google’s advertisers are third-party beneficiaries of this indemnity.
12. Representations; Warranties; Disclaimers
You represent and warrant that (i) you have full power and authority to enter into the Agreement; (ii) you are the owner of, or are legally authorized to act on behalf of the owner of, each Property; (iii) you are the technical and editorial decision maker in relation to each Property on which the Services are implemented and that you have control over the way in which the Services are implemented on each Property; (iv) Google has never previously terminated or otherwise disabled an AdSense account created by you due to your breach of the Agreement or due to invalid activity; (v) entering into or performing under the Agreement will not violate any agreement that you have with a third party or any third-party rights and (vi) all of the information provided by you to Google is correct and current.

OTHER THAN AS EXPRESSLY SET OUT IN THE AGREEMENT, WE DO NOT MAKE ANY PROMISES ABOUT THE SERVICES. FOR EXAMPLE, WE DON’T MAKE ANY COMMITMENTS ABOUT THE CONTENT WITHIN THE SERVICES, THE SPECIFIC FUNCTION OF THE SERVICES, OR THEIR PROFITABILITY, RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY OR ABILITY TO MEET YOUR NEEDS. WE PROVIDE EACH SERVICE “AS IS”.

TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, WE EXCLUDE ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, STATUTORY OR IMPLIED. WE EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM THE WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. TO THE EXTENT SUCH STATUTORY WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS APPLY AND CANNOT BE EXCLUDED, TO THE EXTENT TO WHICH GOOGLE IS ALLOWED, GOOGLE LIMITS ITS LIABILITY IN RESPECT OF ANY CLAIM UNDER THOSE WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS TO, AT GOOGLE’S OPTION, THE SUPPLYING OF THE SERVICES AGAIN OR THE PAYMENT OF THE COST OF HAVING THE SERVICES SUPPLIED AGAIN.

Nothing in this Agreement, including Sections 11, 12 and 13, shall exclude or limit Google’s warranty or liability for losses which may not be lawfully excluded or limited by applicable law. Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of certain warranties or conditions or the limitation or exclusion of liability for loss or damage caused by negligence, breach of contract or breach of implied terms or incidental or consequential damages. Accordingly, only the limitations which are lawful in your jurisdiction will apply to you and Google’s liability will be limited to the maximum extent permitted by law.
13. Limitation of Liability
TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, EXCEPT FOR ANY INDEMNIFICATION OBLIGATIONS HEREUNDER OR YOUR BREACH OF ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, CONFIDENTIALITY OBLIGATIONS AND/OR PROPRIETARY INTERESTS RELATING TO THE AGREEMENT, (i) IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE UNDER THE AGREEMENT FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL, INDIRECT, EXEMPLARY, PUNITIVE DAMAGES OR LOSSES AND EXPENSES WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT OR ANY OTHER THEORY, EVEN IF SUCH PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES OR LOSSES AND EXPENSES AND NOTWITHSTANDING ANY FAILURE OF ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF ANY LIMITED REMEDY AND (ii) EACH PARTY’S AGGREGATE LIABILITY UNDER THE AGREEMENT IS LIMITED TO THE NET AMOUNT RECEIVED AND RETAINED BY THAT PARTICULAR PARTY IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT DURING THE THREE MONTH PERIOD IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING THE DATE OF THE CLAIM. Each party acknowledges that the other party has entered into the Agreement relying on the limitations of liability stated herein and that those limitations are an essential basis of the bargain between the parties.
14. Miscellaneous
Entire Agreement; Amendments.  The Agreement is our entire agreement relating to your use of the Services and supersedes any prior or contemporaneous agreements on that subject. This Agreement may be amended (i) in a writing signed by both parties that expressly states that it is amending the Agreement, or (ii) as set forth in Section 4, if you keep using the Services after Google modifies the Agreement.

Assignment.  You may not assign or transfer any of your rights under the Agreement.
Independent Contractors.  The parties are independent contractors and the Agreement does not create an agency, partnership or joint venture.
No Third-Party Beneficiaries. Other than as set forth in Section 11, this Agreement does not create any third-party beneficiary rights.
No Waiver.  Other than as set forth in Section 5, the failure of either party to enforce any provision of the Agreement will not constitute a waiver.
Severability.  If it turns out that a particular term of the Agreement is not enforceable, the balance of the Agreement will remain in full force and effect.
Survival.  Sections 7, 9, 10, 11, 13 and 14 of these AdSense Terms will survive termination.
Governing Law; Venue.  All claims arising out of or relating to this Agreement or the Services will be governed by California law, excluding California’s conflict of laws rules. The parties will try in good faith to settle any dispute relating to the Agreement (“Dispute”) within 30 days after such Dispute arises. If the Dispute is not resolved within 30 days, it must be resolved by arbitration by the International Centre for Dispute Resolution of the American Arbitration Association and conducted in accordance with its Expedited Commercial Rules in force as of the date of the Agreement. There will be one arbitrator selected by mutual agreement of the parties. The arbitration will be conducted in English in Santa Clara County, California, USA. Either party may apply to any court having jurisdiction for injunctive relief necessary to protect its rights pending resolution of the arbitration. Any decision rendered by the arbitrator will be final and binding on the parties, and judgment thereon may be entered by any court of competent jurisdiction. The arbitrator may order equitable or injunctive relief consistent with the remedies and limitations in the Agreement. All information disclosed in connection with the arbitration, including the existence of the arbitration, will be Confidential Information governed by the confidentiality provision of Section 9. The parties may, however, disclose such information to an appropriate court under confidentiality restrictions, as necessary to seek enforcement of any arbitration award or judgment or to seek any relief permitted under the terms hereof.

Force Majeure.  Neither party will be liable for inadequate performance to the extent caused by a condition (for example, natural disaster, act of war or terrorism, riot, labour condition, governmental action and Internet disturbance) that was beyond the party’s reasonable control.

Communications.  In connection with your use of the Services, we may contact you regarding service announcements, administrative messages and other information. You may opt out of some of those communications in your Account settings. For information about how to contact Google, please visit our contact page.
*              *              *
15. Service-Specific Terms
If you choose to implement any of the following Services on a Property, you also agree to the additional terms identified below:

Custom Search Engine: the Custom Search Engine Terms of Service.

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